Diabetes mellitus is a disease which disturbs the body metabolism resulting in the high blood sugar levels.It is known for causing many types of issues in the different parts of the human body and eyes are one of them.

What is diabetic eye disease?

Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of eye problems that affect people with diabetes. All can cause severe vision loss or even blindness.

Diabetic eye disease includes:

  • Diabetic retinopathy: Damage to the blood vessels in the light-sensitive tissue called the retina. It is the most common cause of vision loss among people with diabetes and the leading cause of vision impairment and blindness among
    working-age adults.
  • Diabetic macular edema (DME). DME is swelling in an area of the retina called the macula. It is a consequence of diabetic retinopathy.
  • Cataract: Clouding of the lens of the eye. Adults with diabetes are 2-5 times more likely to develop cataract and earlier in life than those without diabetes.
  • Glaucoma: Increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that leads to optic nerve damage and loss of vision. Diabetes nearly doubles the risk of glaucoma in adults.    

What is the most common Diabetic eye disease?

Diabetic retinopathy. This disease is a leading cause of blindness in Indians suffering from diabetes. Chronically high blood sugar from diabetes is associated with damage to the tiny blood vessels in the retina. Diabetic retinopathy can cause blood vessels in the
retina to leak fluid or hemorrhage (bleed), distorting vision. In its most advanced stage, new abnormal blood vessel sproliferate (increase in number) on the surface of the retina, which can lead to scarring and cell loss in the retina. These changes may result
in vision loss or blindness.

Diabetic retinopathy may progress through four stages:

  1. Mild non-proliferative retinopathy.
  2. Moderate non-proliferative retinopathy.
  3. Severe non-proliferative retinopathy.
  4. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR).

What are its symptoms?

There are often no symptoms in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. This symptom less progression is why regular eye examinations for people with diabetes are so very important.

Warning Symptoms:

  • Distorted/blurred/doubling of vision
  • Difficulty in reading.
  •  Floaters or spots in your vision.
  • Sudden partial or total loss of vision or a shadow or veil across your field of

How is it detected and treated?

If you have diabetes, you should get your eyes examined at least once a year by a Retina specialist. Your eyes need to be dilated during the examination which allows the eye care professional to see more of the inside of your eyes to check for signs of
the disease. The choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease, age of the patient and the
recommendations of you Retinaspecialist. Treatment options for Diabetic retinopathy can range from regular follow up to
interventions like Laser photo coagulation, Intravitreal injections and Vitrectomy. Many patients have improved vision after vitrectomy.

Can diabetic retinopathy be prevented?
Not totally,but your risk can be greatly reduced. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) showed that better control of blood sugar levels lows the on set and progression of retinopathy and lessens the need for laser surgery for
severe retinopathy.

What can you do to protect your vision?
The best way to control diabetic eye disease is treating the disease early, before it causes vision loss or blindness. So if you or your near dear ones are suffering from the disease, make sure you get a comprehensive dilated eye examination at least once
a year.

Diabetes is a disease that can cause very serious health problems. If you have diabetes:

  1. Know your ABCs: A1C (blood glucose), blood pressure (BP), and
    cholesterol numbers.
  2. Take your medicines as prescribed by your doctor.
  3. Monitory our blood sugar daily.
  4. Reach and stay at a healthy weight.
  5. Get regular physical activity.
  6. Quit smoking.
    In JP Eye Hospital, we provide best and affordable treatment for any retinal


  • Direct/Indirect Ophthalmoscopy
  • Slit Lamp Bio microscopy with 90D/78D non-contact lenses
  • Fundus Fluorescence Angiography (FFA)
  • Fundus Photography
  • Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
  • Laser for Diabetic Retinopathy, Retinal Vascular Disorder, retinal tear sand breaks,
    pre-retinal bleeds, retinal degeneration, Age Related Retinal degeneration(ARMD)
  • EIBOS: Non-contact wide angle viewing system
  • Endolaser, Fluid gas Exchange, Membrane peeling, Silicon Oil Injection
  • Micro-incisional suture less retinal surgeries
  • Scleral buckling
  • Vitrectomy for various complicated and un-complicated retinal disorders
  • Intravitreal Injection of Antibiotic/Avastin, Lucentis, Macugen

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